Author: Janice Young

Janice Young is a philanthropist and you can be a better judge of this if you visit his social networking platforms that have been colored with attractive images of the work that he is doing in the society. Well apart from that Janice is passionate about photography and even volunteers to teach the youngsters how to take the best photos and to use the talent to attract some income. The purpose of the lens is mostly understood by novice camera users, so to offer guidance Janice came up with a comprehensive guide to make the work of selecting the best camera lens easy. Janice spends most of his time in charitable organizations.

Stock Photography Images from Fotolia.com And Dreamstime.com

Fotolia.com and Dreamstime.com are two Web sites that offer stock photography images that are reasonably priced and accessible to freelance AC content writers. Fotolia.com is better than Dreamstime.com, but neither one is better than 123RF.com, which I’ve discussed elsewhere.

Fotolia.com offers a few, usually fifteen, stock photograph images as free royalty-free images, but the quality is usually pretty ordinary. The link to the Free Photos is at the bottom of the page in the footer. The purchasable royalty-free images have a really nice range and versatility. What you can’t find elsewhere in a free royalty-free image, you can surely find at Fotolia.com.

Fotolia.com is an internationally based Web site with sites opened in Espana, France, UK, Deutschland, Italia, Portugal, and Brasil. Photographers who contribute to Fotolia.com hail from even more places than that including, for example, the Russian Federation and Poland. This diversity adds tremendously to the range of subject matter.

Fotolia.com maintains a high standard of selection providing quality professional images for users to choose from. Aside from the fifteen or so free images, all of Fotolia.com image use licenses are sold at a reasonable rate. Three image sizes of Medium (standard), Large, and XLarge are potentially available, some images may only be available in one or two of the sizes. The standard rates for use are $1, $2, and $3 dollars for the respective sizes. Purchases are made through Credits.

In order to make purchases at Fotolia you must be registered with the site and registration is free. Then you must purchase a Credit package starting at $10 equaling 10 Credits. This is not the best choice for Content Producers who write content, but if you simply must have an image to go with your article, then at $1 a standard image sized royalty-free image is a viable option. Purchases can be made through PayPal, which all Content Producers are used to using, or through credit card. If you dislike these methods, you may contact to make other arrangements.

Downloads of images from Fotolia.com can be obtained one of three ways. You may download a JPEG file to your computer by Saving from a dialog box. You may save a Bitmap image through Rescue Download and Saving from a full screen view of the image. Or you may have it emailed to your Inbox. When I did this, it opened in my Adobe.

Dreamstime.com is my least favorite source for stock photography images. They have a selection of about ten or so free royalty-free images. And they also sell their purchasable royalty-free images for $1, $2, or $3, equaling 1, 2, or 3 Credits. The Credit packages available from Dreamstime.com start at $20 and equal 20 Credits. They also offer Subscription packages, like 123RF.com, that start at $89 for 30 days. Subscription packages lower the cost of the images to “as low as $0.27”, with a total daily limit of 10 images downloaded.

The quality of stock photographs available at Dreamstime.com is good but not as consistently good as 123RF.com or Fotolia.com. I don’t very often find images that I wish to use. And I don’t want to pay $20 when I can get high quality free images elsewhere.

Both Fotolia.com and Dreamstime.com have affiliate referral programs whereby a registered member can gain monetary rewards. Each participant agrees to put a Dreamstime “badge” on their Web site, placement of the badge will be confirmed within a few days. Individuals who click to Dreamstime.com through this badge will be identified and a percentage of their purchases is assigned to affiliate.

So, there are resources available to content writers for …

How to Launch a Photography Business Without Your Own Full Time Studio

So you've been considering making the leap from amateur and enthusiast to professional. You've got the gear you need to start, and your skills are up to snuff. You've thought about marketing and promotion.

There's just one thing that stands in your way: a studio.

If your intended photography business has anything to do with taking portraits of people, then you'll probably want a studio to call home. The problem is, this can cost you $1,000 to $2,000 or more per month after you consider rent and other costs.

That's a hefty financial commitment to make, and it presents a bit of a catch-22. If you don't have a successful photography business, how do you afford to the rent for a studio? And if you don't have a studio in which to shoot clients, how do you grow and develop a successful photography business?

While you could always take out a loan and gamble on your success, here are four other options that let you work with clients, build your brand, and grow your business before you commit to a full time studio of your own.

Partner With an Existing Photographer. You're not the only one struggling to pay the bills and fill up a shooting schedule with clients. Chances are, there's a photographer near you with a studio that isn't being used 24/7. The rent is already paid, and every hour that studio sits idle is a wasted resource.

So don't hesitate to reach out to other businesses and try to come to a mutually beneficial agreement. One of my old students interned with a local photographer for a few months, and he agreed to let her use the studio for her own work. She had to share some of the proceeds with the studio, but she had nowhere else to shoot and this allowed her to take a few clients on the side and start building her brand.

Rent a Space by the Hour. Instead of striking an agreement with a potential competitor, you may be able to find a studio space that you can simply rent by the hour. If you work near a major metro area, then you shouldn't have trouble finding a handful of places like this. Contact the owner, find out their hourly rates, and visit the facilities.

If it's going to cost you $40 an hour to rent the studio, then simply build that into the price of your portrait session. After all, when you rent your own studio you'll have to cover the cost of that rent, and this is a good way to ensure that you don't undersell yourself.

Work Outside, or On Location. This is probably the most common tactic, but it works. The great outdoors are, well, free! Scout a few parks in the area, and make a short list of nice shooting locations. There's a park down the road from my house with a gazebo, a large lake, and some scenic woodsy areas. I routinely see people there on the weekends with a photographer, either for portraits or as part of a wedding.

The only problem with this is that you're at the mercy of the weather. No one wants to have a portrait session outside in the rain, and I suspect few people want to pose outside in the wintry cold for an hour, either. It's hard to book things with absolute certainty when you don't know what the weather is going to be like.

Travel to the Client. There is another free alternative, though. Travel to the client's home. Assuming you have …

Difference Between a Server and a Computer

It is improper to talk about this difference, as a server is actually a computer, and a computer can be used as a server. However, beginners in the online world commonly make this mistake, and here is why this difference appears.

The first people who build online websites tens of years ago didn’t have the services of hosting companies at their disposal. Besides the difficulty of building a website entirely in HTML, there was also the problem of keeping the site online. This could only be done with personal computers, which were used as servers for this purpose.

 

Practically, the hosting server had to be on all the time, for the visitors to find the website online. It was pretty challenging to set up such a server and to maintain it, so the hosting companies that appeared a little after this time were surely a blessing for website builders.

A hosting company owns a large number of servers, which are no more than computers that are always online. This way, the web designer will make sure his website is still online and can be found by visitors. These servers are no more than high performing computers with large hard drive capacity. They can host thousands of websites at the same time, offering increased security and solid maintenance as well.

Can I use my computer as a server?

If you ever played a PC game in the Local Network, then you should know how this works. One of the players creates a game, and all the other players can find the match in LAN and connect to it. The central computer is a server in this case, but its role stops at the moment when the multiplayer game ends. This is only an example of how a simple computer can be used as a server.

Today, practically any computer can be used as a server. Your smartphone can be a server when you create a HotSpot for your friends. Your X-box is a server if you host an online game of FIFA with other players. However, as Personal computers are rarely used as servers for online websites, the confusion between computers and servers is not as common as it used to be.

 So what is the difference between a server and a PC today?

Both computers use the same components, such as RAM memory, processors, and sources. However, the rest of the hardware might be completely different between the two devices. Servers have more complicated components, as well as hot-swap elements. Hot-swap hardware is a component that can be replaced while the device is working. It is a handy feature for a server that needs different RAM capabilities at different times of the day.

It is still possible to use PCs as servers today, but it is entirely overrated and inefficient. If you want to build a website that is online all the time, you should consider finding a web hosting company instead of hosting the site on your computer.…

Photoshop Editing Hints: Adding Lighting Effects

An ordinary photo has extraordinary possibilities when you open it in Adobe Photoshop CS2. In this tutorial, I’ll tell you how you can make some dramatic changes in your next photo by adding one of the lighting effects that come standard with your copy of Photoshop.

To begin, select a photo that you would like to work with and then create a copy of that photo so you don’t risk destroying the original version.

Next, you’ll want to sharpen your photograph using the Unsharp Mask filter found under Filters in your menu options. Once your image is crisp and ready to go then it’s time to start looking at some options for lighting effects.

To locate the lighting effects, go to Filter, Render, Lighting Effects in your Photoshop menu. You will then see the lighting effects dialogue box which will give you some options for controlling the kind of lighting you want to add to your photograph.

When you first open your lighting effects dialogue, Photoshop will set the lighting as being “Default”. Other options are available by using the pull down to look through the list of pre-installed lighting settings. Options such as Triple Spotlight, Flood Light and Flashlight are among the many options that are available. Click through each of these options to see the preview effect that it will have on your image. For the photo in my example, I selected the Flashlight option.

Once you’ve selected the type of lighting option you would like to use, you have the option of relocating the center point of the lighting effect, as well as the diameter of the effect by clicking and repositioning the points within the lighting effects preview box. Take a few minutes to play with these settings to get your lighting where you want it in order to make the greatest impact on your photo.

Some other adjustments that are in the lighting effects dialogue include an intensity slider which lets you control how weak or how strong the lighting effect is, and a focus slider which allows you to control how narrow or wide of a lighting effect is added. There are also sliders which can help you control the Gloss, Material, Exposure, and Ambience of the image. Adjust these sliders freely to see the many varieties of effects that can be created with just a simple click.

Once you’re satisfied with your lighting effects settings click on okay to apply those settings to your image. If you aren’t satisfied with your results, simply go to Edit, Step Backward, or use your History pallet to undo your effect and start over again.

In my example image, I went a few steps further after adding the lighting effect and desaturated the image by going to Image, Adjustments, Desaturate. I then applied one of the Underwater Photo Filter that is found under Image, Adjustments, Photo Filters.

By including lighting effects in your photo editing projects you can give your photos the punch they need to really stand out!…

Best Lens For Photography

Regardless of the specific camera model you use, or only rely on third-party equipment, we hope that this article will provide you with the best information you need when choosing a lens.

Lenses are very important to your life as a photographer – they influence the way you portray a location or objects. The best lenses will also allow you to impart your own personal vision on images, and make the result suit your intentions. Read on for our reviews on the best lenses in the game.

Nikon AF-P DX VR – best for wide angle zooming

This has gained a positive reputation among many users in a short time, especially considering its low weight, fast focus, and very good optical performance.

Note: the AF-P lenses are only compatible with the latest DLSR models from Nikon.

Features

  • Ultra-wide view, which even surpasses Kit Lens types
  • Focus distance (smallest) is 0.8 ft./0.22 m, regardless of zoom position
  • It has VR (Vibration Reduction) image stabilization to keep videos and photos sharp, even when handheld
  • Almost silent autofocus stepping motor

Compared to its predecessor, the range of view is less, coming in at 10 to 200mm. Even if you might be disappointed by the noticeable blurring when using it in close up shots, it will make up for this in its size and weight – as well as the shorter zoom-in focal point.

Pros

  • Very sharp photos
  • Compact and lightweight
  • Optical stabilization for better focus
  • Covers a very wide viewing angle
  • Affordable

Cons

  • Narrow aperture
  • Noticeable distortion in the barrel
  • Its corners tend to dim out
  • Experiences chromatic aberration

Verdict

There are some big things that are going well for these lenses, such an optical stabilization, sharp optics, lightweight build, and ultra-wide viewing field. However, the distortion is quite heavy, and the widest angles suffer from weaknesses in edge sharpness – but it presents a budget-friendly choice, and will work for you in many circumstances.

Sigma 17-70mm DC Macro HSM Lens – best pick

Among the Sigma lineup of lenses, this is among the first that was released by the company, coming in the ‘Contemporary’ group of products.

Features

  • HSM Lens of aperture f/2.8-4 DC
  • Zoom type of lens
  • Lens mounts in use are the Pentax KAF3, Nikon F, Canon EF-5, Minolta Alpha DR, and the Sigma SA Bayonet.
  • The smallest focusing distance is 8.6in/22cm regardless of zooming range
  • Filters of 72mm
  • Constructed from thermally stable composite material
  • Maximum magnification ratio of 1:2.9
  • 7 diaphragm blades

The balance between the maximum aperture and zoom range uses a fine balance, and this makes it ideal for photographers who want a general purpose zoom of high quality, and also those looking for a camera that can handle everyday use.

Pros

  • The focus of the lenses is very sharp, regardless of focal length
  • The clarity and color are great
  • Its focus ring is smooth and wide (when you apply correct amounts of drag)
  • It remains retracted even while you move around with it
  • Works very well even without flash photography

Cons

  • Not very good at handling wide shots

Verdict

This camera lens offers both fast zoom and an extended range zoom. These features allow it to be a useful upgrading option, especially if you have outgrown your kit zooms and are an SLR shooter.

Sigma 30mm (for Canon) F1.4 Art DC Lens – best single focal length lens

When using a prime lens, you will notice that it is simply a single focal length. Thanks to the removal of the zoom, it will allow the lenses to become sharper, lighter and smaller, while allowing more light …

Avoid Family Photo Faux Pas With These Photography Tips

As a family and wedding photographer, I have seen my fair share of disastrous family photos. After all, who can resist those tempting photo articles of the awkward family photos? However, as a professional, I give my clients the following tips to avoid those photo faux pas:

Don't try to be something you're not.

Do you love those beautifully posed magazine photos of the perfect family wearing all white on the beach? You know, the ones with the mother's hair beautifully blowing in the wind and the father playfully lifting up his kids? I'll tell you right now, those photos are one in a million. Most real families have tears, stains and bad hair days. Find a photographer willing to work with who you really are, not who you want to be.

Don't try to be too matchy matchy.

If your family doesn't always match their outfits perfectly, why would you want a fake family portrait that shows you as something you're not? I always advise my clients to wear something the feels comfortable and goes well with the other outfits in the photo. Try to avoid heavy patterns or shirts with words on them, but the days of matching your outfits perfectly are over.

Work with your realistic schedule.

If you have young kids, your photo shoot should work around their schedule. Pick a time when they are well rested, fed and have a lot of energy. Additionally, find a photographer who is patient when your little one needs a snack or even a quick break.

Find a background that makes sense for your family.

A great family portrait is classic and timeless. Therefore, you want a background that makes sense for your family long-term. Try to avoid seasonal or holiday shots, such as a photo in front of your fire place if it's covered with holiday decorations or an outdoor winter photo with everyone bundled up in hats and gloves if you want to hang it up year round.

Consider the behind the scenes shot.

Some of the best photos are the candid photos your photographer captures when you're not posing. Ask to see all of the proofs, not just the ones your photographer thinks look perfect. You may be surprised how much you love the pictures that aren't posed and instead show your true family's interaction.…

Quiz: What’s Your Personal Wedding Photography Style?

Quiz: What’s Your Personal Wedding Photography Style?

The experiences, outlook, views, and style of your photographer can drastically change the look and feel of your photographs.

How do you find a photographer who understands your style and your needs? Well, first YOU need to understand your style. Hiring the right photography specialist for your wedding will ensure you are happy with the style, look, and feel of your photos for years to come.

Take this fun quiz to find out your Personal Wedding Photography Style!

1) The images that interest you the most can be found:
A. In the Smithsonian’s National Portrait Gallery
B. Time Magazine, Newsweek, etc
C. Rolling Stone magazine. Or that ‘Zine your friend makes.
D. Vogue magazine
E. Martha Stewart magazine

2) Your house is decorated:
A. American classic color pallet with beautiful furniture and window dressings
B. Simple and functional like an IKEA catalog
C. Eclectically with unique artifacts from your travels, unusual colors
D. Ultra modern with bold colors and artwork
E. With crafts and things that you made

3) Your favorite book is:
A. A 19th century love story novel
B. Anything sci-fi, technical or related to your hobbies
C. Non-fiction stories of true adventurers, biographies of artists, or fantasy novels
D. Anything put out on a coffee table
E. Your 2020 scrapbook

4) Your ultimate vacation would involve:
A. Touring the historic churches of Europe
B. Theme parks or tours that take you “Behind the Scenes” of something
C. Anywhere with culture and foods you’ve never tried before
D. Shopping shopping shopping in N.Y.C. or L.A.
E. Staying at a bed and breakfast

5) Your favorite memories are of:
A. Spending time with your family
B. Remembering moments when you felt alive
C. Traveling
D. Being the center of attention
E. The cute things he’s done for you

6) You remember things by:
A. Pen on paper lists
B. Writing in a journal
C. Taking something away that reminds you
D. Telling Siri
E. Chalkboard lists

7) Your favorite shoes are:
A. Black pumps
B. Chuck Taylors
C. Waterproof sandals
D. The latest Jimmy Choos
E. Mary Janes

8) You can’t stand:
A. Disorganization
B. Things out of context
C. Things that lack history
D. Last year’s styles
E. Store-bought gifts

9) Your wedding invitations:
A. Calligraphy text with RSVP cards
B. Sent via Evite
C. Involve a treasure map and scavenger hunt
D. Delivered in Hermès leather envelopes
E. Glued the glitter on yourself

10) When you look at your wedding photos in 10 years’ time, your biggest fear is that:
A. You’ll think you looked ugly in your portraits
B. You won’t remember all the special moments
C. Your photos will be boring and unoriginal
D. Your photo album isn’t impressive
E. You let someone else put your album together

Scoring:

If you answered mostly:
“A”s – The test of time, please: You have a more traditional style and your wedding photography should reflect that. Choose a classic, traditional photographer that focuses on artwork, posing, and composition. You will look your best when a photographer pays attention to every detail such as your fingers, hair, dress laying just the right place, etc.

“B”s – Just the facts, ma’am: Documentary photojournalism is more your style. Your ideal photographer should spend most of their time documenting the important, humorous, emotional moments of your wedding (and should spend very little time posing you or setting up situations for photos to occur). You do your thing and they take photos. Simple.

“C”s – Intrinsically artistic: You prefer a more eclectic, artistic style of photography. …

A Few Questions for Hannah Wilson and Darla Dear Photography

Hannah Wilson chose a pseudonym when she launched an Etsy site for her fine art photography – Darla Dear.

In the time since Wilson began testing the waters of the commercial art world, she has developed her ideas on running an online shop, sharing her ideas and her art via Etsy, and recently starting a blog exploring her ideas on photography and fashion.

I'm an editor of a small arts journal in the Antelope Valley in the southern reaches of the Mojave Desert and we had a chance to publish some of Wilson's Darla Dear photography in 2019. Hearing that she had started up a blog, I tracked her down to ask her about her projects and to try to get some insight into her views on art in general.

Who are your favorite artists?

I had to think a long time about this question. My favorite artists aren't necessarily ones whose bodies of work I admire the most, but whose work caused me to think of art in a new way. When you realize the ability art has to change your perception of the world, you don't forget that.

With that said, my number one "favorite" artist is abstract-expressionist Mark Rothko, especially for his painting titled No. 14. In an art history book or online, the painting looks quite dull and boring. In person, however, it emits this heavy, vibrating anxiety that you can't really describe with words. I had never fully understood the power of art to move viewers emotionally until I stood in front of that massive canvas. The fact that Rothko was able to create something so powerful out of simple fields of discordant color is mind-boggling to me!

You can see the painting yourself in the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art.

What would you like to achieve with your blog?

I started my blog with the intention of increasing exposure to my Etsy shop, after realizing that those who are most successful utilize multiple social networking sites, and network in their communities like crazy. My photography is not going to get anywhere just sitting, buried in the immense pool of artists that is Etsy.

However, after really getting into the blogging routine, I can see that blogging is so much more than business promotion. Blogging provides motivation to be more creative, to enjoy and document everyday life, and to establish friendships with bloggers around the world!

I would love to become popular enough to accept sponsors and receive a small extra income from that, but more important than that is creating a blog with quality content that people like me want to look at and be inspired by.…

Custom Built Computer Vs OEM Computer

Since the release of the IBM PC, there has been a debate over prefabricated machines (herein referred to as "OEM") and custom built machines. So which is better? The answer lies with you.

One very common misconception is that custom built machines are cheaper to build than OEM. This is no longer the case. In the 1990's, custom built machines could be had for considerably less than OEM. However, today the difference in cost is nominal.

Before you purchase your next computer, make a plan out what your budget is, and what you are going to use the computer for. If you are a general Internet user, surf the web, use IM and download music, the odds are you'll just need a basic system. Any AMD Sempron 2400+ or higher or Intel Celeron 2.4GHz or higher will be more than adequate for that task.

If you are a gamer, I highly advise you build your own system or have one built for you. The reason being, there is a very small amount of OEM builders who use AMD chips in their systems. For gaming, you want AMD, there is no if ands or buts about it. For the best gaming experience you want an AMD Athlon XP 3200+ or higher or an AMD Athlon 64. Any of the AMD Athlon 64 series will be more than adequate.

There is another reason gamers should build their own systems — modification for LAN parties. No one wants to go to a LAN party with a plain beige tower, do they? No, they want cold cathode tubes and LEDs and clear windows on the side. If your going to be switching the tower your computer is in anyway, why void a perfectly good warranty? On a custom built machine, always save all of your receipts, because the odds are each individual part is covered by some form of a warranty.

If your primary objective is work at home, such as word processing, spreadsheets, database manipulation, desktop publishing, or anything of that sort, you'll want to go with an Intel processor. The Intel Pentium 4 is the right chip for data crunching, due to its larger cache size and deeper pipelining allow for more raw data processing to occur. You can find an Intel Pentium 4 chip in almost any OEM computer.

Another good idea, if you've never seen the inside of a computer tower, you probably would want to buy an OEM system, because custom built systems tend not to come with installation and configuration instructions.

If budget is your primary concern, it is important to know that AMD products tend to be less expensive than Intel products. Also realize that Sempron and Celeron processors are the inexpensive version of Athlons and Pentiums, so if performance is merely a secondary and you are looking to have a functional inexpensive system, go with a Sempron or Celeron.

So, if AMD Athlons are cheaper than Intel Pentiums, why are gaming systems so expensive? There are a lot of graphics cards and sound cards out there that actually cost more than your processor does. Remember that your CPU is only one component of your system.

At most computer shows and online computer hardware stores, you can pick up a combo pack of motherboard and CPU for a very good price, usually less than $200 — much less expensive than buying each individually.

Always keep in mind what your budget is and what you want to do with your system. Don't let others sell you on expanding your budget.…

Invisible Evidence: Building a Case for Spirit Photography

What is spirit photography?

In his 1960 work The Encyclopaedia of Occultism, Lewis Spence describes spirit photography as "The production of photographs on which alleged spirit-forms are visible. When the plate is developed there appears, in addition to the likeness of the sitter, a shape resembling more or less distinctly the human form, which at the moment of exposure was imperceptible to normal vision."(pg. 379) Obviously, Spence was speaking of spirit photography in the 1800s, when an early camera called a "Daguerreotype" used tin plates bathed in various chemicals to produce still images of a posed subject. The progression of photographic technology since the 1800s has demanded that we broaden this definition to incorporate more modern methods of capturing ghost images, including the use of infrared films, stop-motion cameras, and digital video. Generally speaking, spirit photography is the attempt to capture on a photographic medium those things that cannot be observed with the naked eye, such as ghosts, spirits, and so on. It has only been in recent years that spirit photography has gained some credibility in the scientific community as a prospective tool for serious paranormal investigation.

Spirit Photography: A Brief History

Though alleged photographs of ghosts and spirits had been taken before the 1860s, it was an American photographer and engraver, William H. Mumler of Boston, who brought spirit photography to the public ("Occultism and Photography", Cheroux, Oxford Photography Encyclopedia). In 1862, Mumler offered to photograph clients in the company of one or more "ghosts". Though the ghosts would be invisible at the time the picture was taken, they would appear later during the development process. One of Mumler's most famous photographs was a portrait of Mary Todd Lincoln, the wife of assassinated president Abraham Lincoln. The alleged spirit of Abraham Lincoln can clearly be seen over the subject's shoulder (illus. 1). The popularity of the Spiritualism movement in America was largely to blame for Mumler's success, though he was suspected of forgery and fraud. Mumler resurfaced in New York in 1869, and in 1872 authorities attempted to prosecute him. Although many of his photographs were exposed as hoaxes, Mumler was acquitted of fraud due to a lack of evidence.

By this time, the practice of spirit photography had spread to England. Two popular spiritualist mediums, Mr. Samuel Guppy and his wife, Agnes Guppy-Volkert, had been attempting to duplicate Mumler's procedures on their own without success. At length, they called in a professional photographer, Frederick Hudson, for assistance. Hudson was successful in producing spirit photographs, and the ease of his success attracted the attention of noted skeptics and scientists including Trail Taylor, the editor of the British Journal of Photography ("Spirit Photography", online Occultism and Parapsychology Encyclopedia, Answers.com). Hudson reportedly allowed skeptics to view and document his entire photographing and developing processes, but no fraud could be determined. Other spirit photographers soon followed, including Edouard Jean Buguet of France, who appeared in London in 1874 and was ultimately tried and convicted of fraud by the French government. In spite of these setbacks, spirit photography continued to be popular, especially in the years immediately following the first world war. Fraud was rampant, attracting the attention of famous celebrities including former supporter P. T. Barnum and the illusionist Harry Houdini, who began a well-publicized personal crusade against fraud in spirit photography in the 1920s. He published the results of his investigations in the book A Magician Among the Spirits in 1924 (John Mulholland, "Houdini, Harry", World Book Encyclopedia, 1966).

Spirit Photography and the American Spiritualism Movement

Noting the impact of American spiritualism on the history of spirit …